Campaign: Frontline – Prologue – Part 3 – The World

And so we come to the player pack for this campaign, detailing the setting of the game I will be running. Keep in mind this is not the official setting of ChromeStrike, but my own creation drawing upon the influences mentioned last time. Feel free to comment on how unoriginal it is or silly or anything else that strikes you! After this pack I will detail the players taking part and their characters (numbering 4 at the moment, though this could change). Also, this game will be played over the internet using Skype and Roll20.net, to make it easier to communicate and portray the action using images and maps.

Anyway, that’s enough author’s notes for now, so here’s the interesting bit. Until next time, when we will hopefully have some character’s to share with you, enjoy!

Frontline: The Borean War

15 years ago, the sky fell. We built great weapons to protect ourselves, and shot the falling sky as it threatened our homes. Some were saved. Others were not. But the nations of the world endured, and began to rebuild.

On the Borean coast, the Principality of Cyril suffered heavily during that time, and struggled to match the recovery efforts of it’s neighbors. Then a council of Generals came to power, overthrowing the corrupt civilian government following their inability to cope with the situation. Only then did the country begin to recover.

Then, in 1996, the Principality of Cyril invaded Toralia. It was the start of the Borean War.

The region surrounding the Borean Sea.

The region surrounding the Borean Sea.

The Federal Republic of Toralia

Founded originally in 1064, Toralia had only recently returned onto the world stage as it’s own nation, back in 1976 upon Cyril’s defeat in the Third Continental War. Before that it had existed as the Northern Province of Cyril for over a hundred years, since the original Cyril-Toralian conflict of 1810. Upon realizing it’s independence, the nation immediately set out on a prolonged program of modernizing it’s military and infrastructure, resolved to never again become the vassal of another country.

The Tolarian Flag

The Toralian Flag

The nation’s efforts were aided greatly by it’s access to the Hague mountains that divided the mainland from Cyril, a resource rich region that had prompted the original invasion in 1810. Toralia was also one of the fortunate nations to avoid being affected by fragments of the “Orion” asteroid following it’s destruction in 1981, unlike it’s southern neighbor. In a widely acclaimed gesture of goodwill, the Federal Republic of Toralia provided aid and acted as a staging area for relief efforts in Cyril.

The increased traffic and influx of aid heading to Cyril boosted Toralia’s economy, providing a demand for workers to help with the relief efforts. But after a few years, the aid being sent to Cyril from across the continent began to decrease, leaving behind the Corridor as it’s legacy. The Corridor is a major pass through the Hague mountains, the only one in existence.

Though it’s industry is underdeveloped in comparison to other nations’, Toralia has emerged as a major supplier of raw goods, such as lumber and ore. The northern regions of the country, bordering the Scythian Straits, are also renowned for their fish. With the wealth generated by the resources sold to it’s neighbors, Toralia managed to completely modernize their infrastructure and civil services within five years, though the military lacks any cutting edge equipment, relying mostly on outdated hardware from United Eulean Territories, as well as the People’s Emirate of Arya.

The general populace of Toralia is religious, focused around a monotheistic belief with great emphasis placed on eight saints. Each saint is celebrated on the date of their birth, and these dates have become national holidays. Their influence is marked in all aspects of Toralian culture, with the number eight being held as particularly significant (see the eight stars on the country’s flag). Another holiday that hold equal importance in the hearts of the people is Liberation Day, June 8th, the day the Federal Republic was officially freed from Cyril’s control. All holidays are celebrated with feast days, with certain meals being associated with certain holidays – for example, the Feast of Saint Lopez consists of a variety of seafood dishes, particularly shellfish, whereas the Feast of Saint Miguel consists mainly of the meat of birds.

The capitol city of the Federal Republic of Toralia is Madera, located on the Borean coast.

The Principality of Cyril

The Cyril Flag

The Cyril Flag

One of the oldest nations on the continent, Cyril is a country with a long and proud history, and historically had always acted as the first line of defense against any Murskan incursion from the south. With the cessation of hostilities between Murska and the Eulean Territories, Cyril found itself with a large amount of equipment and veteran soldiers, making it one of the most potent military forces in the world.

The country has had a turbulent relationship with it’s neighbors, but this rarely escalated into outright conflict. This changed when “Orion” fell from the heavens. Though the asteroid was successfully destroyed, it’s fragments still rained upon the world, causing devastation wherever they landed. Not only did Cyril suffer a strike to it’s landmass, it also suffered heavy damage along it’s coast when a fragment fell into the Tenebaum Channel. In the political upheaval following the impacts, martial law was declared to keep the peace and facilitate relief efforts.

Following the passing of the Prime Minister, the generals tasked with keeping order took over until such a time as the martial law was no longer necessary. Under their leadership, the country began to recover, though there was widespread resentment among the populace that more was not being done. How dare the continent not put forth every effort to aid them, after all that Cyril had done for them combating the Murskans? The months went on, and Toralia seemed to be benefiting more from the international relief efforts than Cyril. Whispers began to circulate, that the Toralians were stealing some of the aid meant for the populace of Cyril. So when the Council of Generals declared their intention to save their country by taking back from Toralia what was rightfully theirs, public opinion was fully on their side.

Cyril boasts a proud military tradition, with nearly every family in the country having a member actively in the armed forces. Having been originally used as a buffer against Murska by the UET, the military received much foreign aid in terms of hardware and training, making it one of the most dangerous in the world. However, despite the influence of foreigners, great emphasis is placed on tradition and history, with many units and formations continuing the customs that now make up part of their identity, such as the annual joust held by members of the 63rd Tactical Combat Frame Unit, which is always led by a Cyril noble.

The capitol city of Cyril is Teamhrach, with the seat of government being the ancient castle at it’s heart.

The Orion Asteroid

Originally detected in the late 1960s, the stellar object labelled “Orion” was readily identified as on a collision course for Earth. However, due to the Third Continental War the information was not acted upon until nearly ten years later. An unintended consequence of this was that the major nations were already focused on production of heavy arms, and were able to easily begin construction of various countermeasures. Due to this war-time conditions persisted in Murska and the United Eulean Territories throughout the 1970s, as well as several other nations.

Each country had it’s own approach to dealing with the incoming catastrophe, though it did prompt unprecedented global cooperation. The tactic agreed upon in an emergency meeting between world leaders was to destroy the asteroid as soon as possible, and then destroy any fragments that would not burn up in the atmosphere. This led to the creation of the Allied Nation Anti-Stellar Weapon “Mandala”, which managed to successfully destroy the Orion asteroid.

As the remains of the giant rock fell into the atmosphere, it fell to each nation to use their own countermeasures to keep themselves safe. The UET used a linked network of rail-guns to destroy the fragments, whereas the Murskans deployed gigantic aircraft to intercept any pieces that threatened their borders, and the People’s Emirate of Arya used their extensive satellite weapons net to attack any fragment larger than a hut that came anywhere close to their airspace.

The Relief Efforts – “The Borean Airlift”

Following the multiple “Orion” impacts of 1981-2, the global superpowers that had managed to weather the cataclysm mobilized to provide aid to any affected nations. Cyril was one of these nations, though there were numerous difficulties in delivering supplies to the stricken country. The Hague mountains funneled all land based traffic, and many of the ports in the country had been damaged by the tidal fallout of the Tenebaum Impact. It was therefore decided that to deliver the most supplies as quickly as possible, an airlift would be required. In the space of a year it is believed roughly six million cargo aircraft flew over the peninsula, dropping supplies.

Toralia was used as the main base of operations for supplies coming from the continent, and it is believed even the Murskans sent supplies over the Tenebaum Channel. The Borean AIrlift as it came to be known is widely regarded as a success, though the exact extent of Cyril’s recovery is still unknown. It is believed to have managed to restore Cyril to a semblance of self-sufficiency, since the ruling government has refused any further aid in the form of reconstruction or shared labor by Toralian industries.

Zaragoza: Toralian Military Installation 34FG78

Colonel Benito

Coronel Benito

One of numerous Cyril bases abandoned when Toralia regained it’s independence, and subsequently taken over by the Toralian military. Located in the south-eastern part of the country, a few hours drive from the Corridor. Before the war, it was used as a refueling stop for cargo planes carrying supplies to Cyril, though it no longer acts as an airbase due to the small size of the Toralian air-force. Instead it is staffed as an emergency airfield, with a skeleton crew and a small garrison composed mainly of foot troops and their APCs, as well as a flight of helicopter gunships. Commanded by Coronel Benito, a young and easy-going officer who used to be a gunship pilot.

Personnel Dossier: Dara Doherty “The Major”

Major Dara Doherty

Major Dara Doherty

A veteran combat frame pilot, Dara is a quiet and intense man who has served in the Cyril military for the past thirty years. He began his career upon enlisting during the Third Continental War, and has on numerous times refused promotion to a non-battlefield position, earning him the nickname of the “Eternal Major”.

Since the end of the Third Continental War, he has been the squad leader of the 124th Artillery Frame Unit “Mad Bull”, a specialist formation of frames that act as their own self-sufficient siege force.

Advertisements

Campaign: Frontline – Prologue – Part 2 – The Influences

So, when creating a campaign, it’s important to have your influences clearly in mind, as I am sure you already know. It’s why we want to run a game, to put our own spin on stories we love, or to incorporate ideas we’ve seen in other tales and see how they interact with things in other settings. It also prompts you to be creative to make something fit in the setting you are developing whilst still making sense.

That last one is a real point of importance in my case, since one of my regular players (who I stress is a really nice guy!) is a veteran GM, with years of world building experience. He also has really high standards when it comes to games…OK maybe not that high – he wants continuity and sense and logic and PHYSICS. Which kind of makes me wonder why he signed on for the mecha game, considering the genre itself has as much to do with physics and logic as it does with ballroom dancing…

Ahem, excuse the tangent – the topic today is influences!

As previously mentioned, one of my major influences in running this game was the Ace Combat series of games by Namco. I honestly do not know why I love these games. I just know I do and I would love to be able to tell a similar story. So like any good writer, I stole. There’s a quote about good poets imitating and great ones stealing, but I can’t find the original citation…

In any case, to give you a sense of the story I’m aiming for, here is a collection of videos! Let’s start off with Ace Combat 04, the earliest released game in the series that I actually own, and the first to really develop the setting.

What did I take away from this game to put into ChromeStrike: Frontline? Firstly, the notion of an asteroid falling onto the world and triggering conflict. With a stalemate of sorts in place, it would take something drastic to upset the balance, and a giant rock from nowhere dropping onto the planet surely counts. Secondly, the Yellows. Anyone who has EVER played Ace Combat 4 knows what I’m talking about. The elite enemy squadron that is way beyond your capabilities to deal with the first time yo run into them, what with you being a far more inexperienced pilot. Of course, in an RPG, the players will still probably find a way to kill whatever expy of them I introduce in their first meeting, but if they don’t, they can become decent recurring villains and truly give the party a sense of accomplishment upon finally defeating them at some suitably dramatic moment later in the game.

Ace Combat 5 was the first Ace Combat game I actually played, and I still love it. Compared to 4, it had a greater story and actually developed characters. What did I take from this game for Frontline though? I took the notion of the players becoming truly (in)famous amongst friend and foe, their victories being recognized and rewarded, with enemies and allies reacting to their exploits (such as targeting them specifically to inflict morale damage on allied forces, or refusing to engage them, as well as allies demanding their support in various missions, making the group have to choose between objectives).

As well as this, the idea of the home base the party could rely on, making it as much a home or keep or even starship as possible. What do I mean? In traditional fantasy games, once the players have a castle or land that is theirs, they will guard it and love it and develop it. Similar to how in a sci-fi game players will bond with any ship they end up with. It’s THEIRS. So trying to develop similar feelings in my group regarding their carrier (similar to how the characters in Ace Combat 5 come to regard the Kestrel), became one of my goals.

And then we come to Ace Combat Zero, the prequel to 5. And this is still one of my favorites from the series. It was the first to truly incorporate enemy ace squadrons into the game, and that was certainly an idea I took for my campaign – having elite squadrons mixed in with the regular mook army to challenge the players through use of bizarre tactics or specialist equipment. Secondly is the superweapon. To be fair it is more of a common theme in all the games, with each one having at least one noteworthy piece of bizarre sci-fi tech. But it changes things up and gives one side in the war I was plotting a clear advantage and naturally came with its own opportunities for themed missions and assets to be called upon by the enemy to make the players’ lives harder if they were doing really well or finding things too easy.

Note, this doesn’t mean I aim to be cheap, rather, I aim to give the players a challenge. I want them to win, but victory without risk or some hardship is just not as satisfying.

I never got a chance to play number 6, since it came out for a different console than the series normally used. Why? No idea. In any case, I still followed the story, and that’s where the idea of a military junta controlled nation being the aggressor came from, an example of a nation struggling to cope with the fallout of the asteroid impact. Also, it was evocative of many stories against enemies in the shadows, acting as puppet masters whilst never confronting the players directly. I had the enemy aces to be the face of the enemy on the battlefield. The political arena was unlikely to come up during play – though politics and screaming your ideals at each other in the middle of a fight is part of the mecha genre.

Hmmm, may have to make one of the generals from this junta into an ace for the party to meet…

The closest we ever got to an Ace Combat anime, and a damn fine show anyway, Area 88 is what gave me ideas for subplots dealing with mercenaries fighting in war, having to deal with self-supply and other logistic issues in addition to the fighting. A fair few NPCs were born from this show in my campaign too, mostly focused on the links between pilots and the maintenance crews.

With the mecha genre being pretty much the domain of anime, it was inevitable I would be influenced by the various shows I had seen. One of the major ones that tend to inspire me is of course, Code Geass. I was too young to catch much Gundam when it was coming out, and instead latched onto Code Geass when I stumbled across it.

The main ideas and concepts I took away from this show was rebellion, audacious strategy, and the relationships formed between the characters. With the idea of a junta controlling the aggressor nation, if the players found themselves operating within it’s borders, I had some plot to keep things interesting if the usual military missions started wearing thin – such as supporting/combating rebellious elements, and dealing with the propaganda machine.

Whilst ChromeStrike does not have very detailed rules for the characters themselves as opposed to their machines, having something prepared to engage the players in a way they totally do not expect is always a good call. After all, the players characters cannot be in their machines all the time.

The only Gundam series I have actually managed to watch (trying to find the originals has proven…troublesome…), and one which certainly gave me some useful ideas – like how to deal with an enemy with vastly superior hardware (for when the players end up with stupidly powerful mechs), and the various motivations characters can have for being pilots (useful for fleshing out the enemy aces). Of course, the notion of life beyond the mecha is not heavily developed, but the concept of consequences of military action on civilians and the knock on effect it can have leading to some really big problems later on did help me craft the subplots I was developing with greater detail.

Aaah this show. Alternate earth, crazy sci-fi knowledge blended with relatively real robot concepts…for me the most striking image will always be from the opening episode, with a mecha wrestling a helicopter gunship to the ground. Again, this is a story of adapting to civilian life, and of being noble mercenaries. The idea of a submarine as a carrier is certainly an interesting one, and maybe something to offer the players partway through the campaign…combine with loot rolls if they successfully take an enemy dry-dock? Could link nicely to the Hrimfaxi and Scinfaxi ideas that Ace Combat 5 introduced…

And of course, we cannot forget the major inspirations behind ChromeStrike itself:


With all those influences noted and recognized…time to move onto building the stage for this little drama – the world.

Sword of the Stars: Complete Collection Review

Sword of the Stars is a game about space combat, much likes Sins of a Solar Empire. Whereas Sins focuses on fast game-play, Sword of the Stars instead focuses on personalization of your fleet. Your entire space armada can consist of destroyers, cruisers and dreadnoughts designed entirely by you. The Complete Collection gives you not only the original game, but also the three expansions: Born in Blood, Murder of Crows, and Argos Naval Yard.

The Story

Humanity, having ascertained that it is alone in the galaxy, finishes its first starship, set to colonize a distant galaxy. However, just after leaving orbit the ship is attacked and destroyed by an unknown fleet of enemy ships, which proceed to assault the earth. The invaders are repulsed with staggering costs for humanity. Now aware of the threats amongst the stars, the human race begins expanding its dominion over the stars with stronger and tougher ships, encountering more and more species.

This is all merely backstory, though much more information on each species and their philosophy is provided in the manual and a tie-in novel, all written by Arinn Dembo. The races on offer are Humanity, the reptilian Tarka, insect-like Hivers, the space-dolphin Liir, a warrior race known as the Zuul, and the Morrigi (bird-people from space!). Each species has a distinct theme, which is reflected in the way it plays in the main game.

The Graphics

Originally released in 2006, the game has an aesthetic that seems almost cartoonish at times, especially in the case of the ships. However, this is rarely an issue as each species has a distinct look for each of their ships, easily allowing the player to identify the different types of craft in the midst of battle.

Combat tends to be fluid, with no drop in quality, especially on today’s computers, although it’s generally inadvisable to build an entire fleet of carriers or missile boats, lest your computer crash from the strain of trying to track over a thousand missiles or attack craft.

The Gameplay

The game is split into two halves – one part consists of you managing your fleets, giving them orders, researching new technologies and the like. This is all done on a turn based galactic map, with the control of planets being the aim of the game. There is no micromanagement of your planets however, as economy, terraforming and trade are emphasized through the use of slider bars, resulting in faster infrastructure growth, greater population increase or decreased research times.

Most of the game revolves around the space combat between fleets, which is played out on a 2D/3D map. The player orders their ships on a 2D plane but ships will automatically move in three dimensions (so as to avoid collisions for example). Orders to fire consist of the player clicking on the section of the enemy ship they want damaged, such as turrets or engines. Also, there are no health bars – rather the condition of a ship is reflected by its appearance. Damage is portrayed on the actual craft, steadily worsening until it is barely hanging together. This makes the game more visual, and entertaining, as there is something a tad more engaging about having to constantly check on your ship’s condition rather than just glancing at a steadily decreasing green bar of health.

Technology is one of the game’s driving features – newer tech is needed to build bigger and more effective warships. However, the tech tree is always randomized for each race. Some races have better odds of having access to certain technologies, but no two games are ever the same – once you may be dependent on ballistic projectiles, and in another game have nothing but laser power, and in a third a mix of both. This is rarely outright frustrating, though in some minor instances it can cripple the way you play the game (a lack of developed engines for example, or having access to technology your species can’t research anyway).

Each race is also distinct from the other in several ways, the most notable being their method of traveling between planets. Humanity is confined to node lines – preexisting links between planets, which limits their movement as the chance of choke points occurring is relatively high. The Tarka have no such restrictions, traveling all over the galaxy without an issue. Hivers are the slowest race, taking ages to travel between planets. Once there however, they can construct gates to teleport their forces. All planets become equidistant from each other, allowing reinforcements to show up from the opposite side of the galaxy in a flash. As for the dolphin-like Liir, their ships travel faster the further they get from planets, meaning that long trips take the same amount of time as short trips in most instances.

What If?

The date was March 10th, in the year 2003. France had become subservient to the Commonwealth three months before. Britain was left as the sole free country in Europe. The island nation refused to give in to the demands of the Electoral King. Instead they prepared for war against the growing superpower. With aid from the UIS in the West, and allied to the CER in the East, the British were a force to be reckoned with. Storming the Kingdom of Great Britain would be nothing short of a bloodbath.

Alternate histories have always been a setting employed by many storytellers, exploiting our curious nature, our desire to ponder on how things could have gone differently. Ranging from the relatively minor (what if General Robert E. Lee’s Special Order 191 hadn’t been lost?) to the extreme (what if space lizards had invaded during World War 2?), stories set in our world, but not quite, immediately draw our interest. Perhaps it is because we know so much about our own history, and enjoy imagining how the world may be if something in our past had gone slightly differently – how much of a lasting impact would it have had in the end?

Simply put, alternate history is the exercise of looking into the past and asking “what if?” Generally existing as works of fiction, either in narrative format or as essays or other non narrative work. However, such settings have seen an increase in popularity over recent years, ranging from the steam punk inspired Brave New World LARP to the walker dominated battlefields of the Gear Krieg tabletop game.

I can’t say when exactly my own interest in alternate history began, but it was certainly a result of my interest in all things science fiction. How many of us as children loved the bizarre outlandish creatures portrayed in books and on TV? As I grew older this merged with my interest in history – that of the World Wars in particular. Both were momentous occasions in our history, and yet I couldn’t help myself but imagine how awesome it would have been to have walkers rampaging around North Africa under Rommel’s command, or aircraft carriers that themselves were planes flying through the sky. Whilst obviously far fetched, these images rooted themselves in my mind (in no small thanks to the fact that the Nazi’s had been in fact planning to build vehicles which could have passed as video game bosses – the Ratte tank is a prime example of this).

Why am I saying this? Simply because whilst regarded as a special genre of science fiction, historians are coming round to the idea of alternate history as a valid method of approaching actual real world history – imaging a world that is rooted in ours yet different due to some change promotes the close study of cause and effect which is central to historic study. So give it a go – join the 8th Army in Africa with their Roundhead walkers or read about the America that might have been had the Confederates won the war. Explore the ruins of the Capital Wasteland or create your own brand of our history for your next pen and paper role play – you’ll be surprised at how different our history could have been, whether due to epic alien invasions or something as simple as the lack of a nail.

Campaign: Frontline – Prologue – Part 1 – The Game

Like many of us, I often find myself trawling through the internet looking for a new RPG to grip my imagination/interest. Not that anything I currently have has grown stale, but rather to see something new, a new idea or concept or such like to inspire my other games.

The ChromeStrike Rulebook

The ChromeStrike Rulebook

And the result of my search? ChromeStrike, a free mecha RPG spawned by 4chan, developed by DukeFluffy Productions. Now I know what some of you are thinking, but having read the rules for FATAL I figured things couldn’t get worse. I was pleasantly surprised by what I found. A rules-lite RPG that evokes the sense of fun that the battles in Mechwarrior did, and easily adapted to a tabletop wargame, yet still easy to pick up and play.

In any case, this isn’t a review (that will wait for another day) but my attempts at putting together a campaign for the game and having some of my friends wreck play through it. Following a read through the rules, the machines on offer, the games master advice and the setting, I quickly jotted down a few ideas:

1) Original Setting – There is nothing wrong with the setting in the book, being rather standard/traditional fare. Megacorporations rule the world thanks to their mecha forces, and often skirmish against one another in the name of corporate greed or nationalism. However, I personally had no real interest in that world, so instead chose to set it on an alternate Earth, where nations still ruled and the almost dystopian future of corporate nations was still a dark dream. I also enjoy crafting new settings, especially since often my players are welcome to add their own touches and influences through the use of their characters and their back-stories. As well as this, one of my major influences for this campaign was the Ace Combat series of games from Namco, as will become readily apparent as this log goes on…

2) Players as Mercenaries – Whilst I could have easily stuck my players in as a regular military unit, that would have curbed their options somewhat when it came to making choices and decisions. Mercenaries on the other hand have greater freedom in choosing their missions, as well as technically having no true loyalty to any side, and as such not forcing any characterization on the creations of my players. Having the players as self-equipped mercenaries would also explain away why the characters are permitted to loot and salvage enemy mechs from the battlefield, a major source of income for the party in ChromeStrike, and why their own mechas would more than likely be Frankensteins of mismatched parts.

3) A Single Story Arc – In the past, I have had difficulties running and ending campaigns, mostly due to my own inexperience as a games master. Games rarely had a satisfying conclusion, and there were always loose or forgotten plot threads dangling, or games would go on for so long players would inevitably drop out. This time, I aimed for a relatively short and unambitious campaign, and so structured the game as if it were a video game (again, Ace Combat influences!)

4) Fun – This is not a game of philosophical debates or moral choices (though those may well crop up during gameplay), but rather a game of action, with robots shooting and ripping one another apart, with great glory and renown to be earned by those willing to seize it. As always, a major factor in a game is making sure everyone taking part is having fun, and knowing what each player enjoys and trying to cater for that.

With those points clearly in mind I set out to crafting my world, and gathering up a bunch of ne’er-do-wells to be the heroes (or maybe villains) in this little tale of mine…

A look at Jonathan Swift’s “A Modest Proposal”.

Jonathan Swift’s A Modest Proposal is a Juvenalian satirical essay that was written and published in 1729, and is regarded by critics such as Wittkowsky, Baker and Landa as one of the finest works of satire in English literature. It is widely accepted as having been created to act as a commentary on the state of Ireland during the 18th Century, when British landlords would repossess great amounts of the laborers wealth, leaving them with little choice but to starve.

Many of the Protestant landlords acquired their lands after confiscating them from the Catholic Irish, with only 14% of Ireland left in Catholic hands by the 1700s. Also, an act was passed in 1704 to prevent Catholics from buying land, further crippling the Irish and making them wholly dependent on the whims of the British landlords. Swift never directly draws attention to this, instead focusing on the plight of the poor Irish; he invokes the “melancholy” sight of women and children begging, adding that the mothers “are forced to employ all their Time” trying to find food for their starving infants. Throughout the pamphlet, Swift maintained an air of decency and reason, despite the frankly monstrous notion he proposes: that the poor should eat their own young to survive. Not only does this notion repulse many readers of the pamphlet, but it also effectively symbolizes the Protestant landlords devouring Ireland’s future, by driving many workers into poverty and essentially killing them. The critic Wittkosky also remarks how this satire is “directed against conditions in Ireland rather than against a set of theories and attitudes which rendered such conditions possible.”

The reason for such conditions stems from, what Wittkowsky calls, “a philosophy of economic statism which regarded labor as a commodity” What this means is that during the 18th Century, the state and its welfare were seen as most important, and the plight of the working classes was a necessary sacrifice for the betterment of the state in terms of economy. The prevalent nature of this attitude prevented Swift from criticizing it, so instead he focused on the appalling conditions in Ireland, partly to illustrate the suffering such thinking brought about, and partly due to his Irish heritage. The result is, as Ricardo Quintana puts it, “not only the greatest of Swift’s Irish tracts; it is also the best introduction to his satiric art.”Swift’s fame as a satirist stems not only from A Modest Proposal, but also Gulliver’s Travels, a novel concerning itself primarily with parodying travel fiction, which also contains criticisms of the British treatment of Ireland, and is much more often the target of critical analysis.

As Wittkowsky has stated, “toward the Modest Proposal, a major work by a major English writer, scholars have been definitely coy.” Whilst it is a valid argument that Swift’s work was highly influenced by the context in which it is set, with poor quality of life in Ireland, English exploitation of Irish workers on religious grounds, it must also be remembered that Swift was well-known for his satire even at the time of penning A Modest Proposal, when, as Quintana puts it, Swift’s satire “attained its most perfect expression.” The result of this reputation is that most of the readers at the time knew that Swift’s ultimate purpose in creating the pamphlet was satire, and would have instantly recognized that “a young healthy child well nursed is at a year old a most delicious, nourishing, and wholesome food,” is a satirical phrase, though the target would have been harder to identify for a contemporary audience, since as Marshall puts it, “by the beginning of the eighteenth century, the view that poverty was caused primarily by low wages had fallen into dis-repute.”. Yet Swift follows up on this remark with a statement that clearly portrays his views and reasoning behind them, in a beautiful remark that is easily recognized as a punishing attack on the landlords of Ireland; “I grant this food will be somewhat dear, and therefore very proper for landlords, who, as they have already devoured most of the parents, seem to have the best title to the children.”

This kind of language, an aggressive attack on the roots of Ireland’s problem, makes A Modest Proposal too “alienating to be successful as a hoax”, and Robert Phiddian expands upon this idea, suggesting that “the text does not make a serious attempt to lull us into a false sense of security. Rather, it attacks us”. Due to the satirical nature of the text, it is unsurprising that it does this to the reader as well as the causes of the conditions it is criticizing, making the reader question their own role in such events. A contemporary audience during the 18th Century would be as equally repulsed by the notion of cannibalism as a modern audience, and both would also be expecting the test to be a form of satire due to being penned by Swift. However, a contemporary reader would be far more affected by the criticism on a personal level, most probably being exposed to the plight of the Irish in some form and merely disregarding it, rather than viewing it as a part of history as is the case for a modern reader. This makes the Juvenalian satire much more bitter and harsh to the contemporary reader, therefore making it more effective in conveying the writer’s bitter opinion of the state of affairs.

 

Is Victorian literature predicated on a fascination with the theme of progress or a preoccupation with notions of decline?

The Victorian era was a time of great change – technology was advancing rapidly, and changes in society soon followed. It was a period of time that many saw not only as the dawn of a new age, but the death of an old one as well. The most prevalent themes one could argue that emerged in the literature of the time were those of progress and decline: progress on a technological and scientific level, and decline on a moral and societal scale. Yet as with many notions being developed with the advent of the 20th century, nothing was truly clear.

As the last completed era of English literature, which ran for as long as the reign of the Queen who gave it it’s name (1837-1901), the Victorian period was marked with a rapid rise in population (London itself rose from a population of 2 million to 6 million in just over sixty years), and industrialization was running rampant throughout the British Empire, particularly the British Isles themselves. In it’s wake came prosperity for a fortunate few but misery for many more (factory owners as opposed to factory workers). Charles Dickens is one of the most well known authors to deal with these issues, in works such as Oliver Twist and Hard Times.

Probably the most famous of Dickens’ works, Oliver Twist is the story of an orphan struggling to survive in Victorian London, witnessing it’s crime ridden underworld as well as achieving the possibility to progress in his social station and find acceptance and a family. The novel was published in 1838 and was most known for it’s unromantic portrayal of criminals and their lives. Throughout the novel, Dickens offers a grim look at the London that has arisen in the shadow in industrialization, such as how orphan children were considered by society:

“he was badged and ticketed, and fell into his place at once- a parish child- the orphan of a workhouse- the humble, half-starved drudge- to be cuffed and buffeted through the world- despised by all, and pitied by none.”

Orphan children were often put to work in order to support themselves, and child labor was an issue that many contemporaries of Charles Dickens highlighted. There was no service in place to care for such outcast children, leaving them to be exploited by others, as portrayed in the novel by Oliver’s association with Fagin and his gang. This is similar to the rather grim viewpoint portrayed in Dickens’ The Old Curiosity Shop, in which he writes:

“Thus violent deeds live after men upon the earth, and traces of war and bloodshed will survive in mournful shapes long after those who worked the desolation are but atoms of earth themselves.”

Yet throughout the novel there are also rays of hope, showing that Victorian sensibilities and values have managed to survive through this time of change, and that the decline so feared by many is not as inevitable as thought. The story of Oliver Twist, though mired in satire and the grim trappings of industrialized London and all of it’s exploitation and misery, is at heart a kind of fairy tale – the main character remains virtuous despite the evil around him, and is ultimately rewarded for it. On the way to this ending however Dickens takes the opportunity to explore the kind of life an orphan would have in London at the time.

Though the view that society was in decline was a commonly expressed sentiment in the Victorian era, the general theme of Oliver Twist (of an orphan achieving a family and increasing his social standing) is ultimately that of progression and hope. This is reinforced throughout the novel by the notion of love and caring, simple human virtues that persevere even in the face of cold and unfeeling industry:

“my heart is set, as firmly as ever heart of man was set on woman. I have no thought, no view, no hope in life, beyond her; and if you oppose me in this great stake, you take my peace and happiness in your hands, and cast them to the wind.”

“The persons on whom I have bestowed my dearest love, lie deep in their graves; but, although the happiness and delight of my life lie buried there too, I have not made a coffin of my heart, and sealed it up, for ever, on my best affections. Deep affliction has but strengthened and refined them. ”

Both of these segments are said by different characters, yet both exemplify the same good nature and morals that many Victorians feared were declining. We can see further examples from the contemporaries of Dickens, such as Elizabeth Gaskell. It is interesting to note that the Victorian era did see the rise of female writers such as Elizabeth Gaskell, as well as the Bronte sisters and Mary Elizabeth Braddon. This alone is an interesting indication of progress from the previous era’s when women writers were widely looked down upon. Indeed, many of the women writers during the Victorian era utilized pseudonyms to get their works published under male names (such as Currer Bell in the case of Charlotte Bronte when publishing Jane Austen).

Gaskell is most widely known for her fourth novel, North and South, published in 1855, which deals with industrialization in a much more direct manner than Oliver Twist – dealing with the relationship between workers and industrialists from the industrialist viewpoint (having already dealt with the viewpoint of the workers in Mary Barton, published in 1948). The novel itself is primarily based around the relationship between Mr. John Thornton, master of Marlborough Mills and Margaret Hale, an outside observer to the clash between workers and Thornton, resulting in a strike that severely damages Thornton’s wealth. Like Dickens’ Oliver Twist, North and South shows a celebration of a personal victory happening despite the society around the characters – though the living standards have declined (a surprisingly large amount of characters die in the book, from overwork to cotton dust inhalation), industrialists are still people who have compassion and can work with the workers beneath them to make improvements in Victorian society. Margaret is the virtuous female who represents the changing woman in Victorian Britain, becoming a regular factory worker alongside the men, but still exemplifying wisdom and a stoicism that was highly valued by the contemporary readership:

“Loyalty and obedience to wisdom and justice are fine; but it is still finer to defy arbitrary power, unjustly and cruelly used-not on behalf of ourselves, but on behalf of others more helpless.”

One of the truest reflections of attitudes at the time – combining the traditional Victorian values of loyalty and obedience with an intolerance for the unfairness that had arisen with the industrialization of production, putting many people out of work and forcing them to move to the cities in search of jobs, resulting in the rapid urban growth of the era and the exploitation of many workers by those who owned the workhouses. It is also key to note that during the Victorian era, there was a major shift in regards to the notion of childhood. Rather than being expected to work and act like adults as soon as they were able to, the idea that childhood should be a time of joy and innocence began to emerge. This change was mostly brought about by social reformers and philanthropists, driven by the Christian values prized in society, and reacting to the phenomenon of children working in dangerous factories. As the idea of childhood developed, it gained widespread support eventually leading to such legal measures as the 1833 Factory act which banned children under the age of 9 from the workplace. This increased amount of freedoms for children resulted in a progression in the notions of parenthood, as is stated by Mr. Hale in North and South to his daughter Margaret:

“a wise parent humours the desire for independent action, so as to become the friend and adviser when his absolute rule shall cease.”

The constantly changing situation had led to a decline at first, with parents sending their children to work in the dangerous factories simply because the children were expected to work, and the parents themselves had worked when they had lived in the rural farming communities. However such a practice was of little use in the industrialized cities, which all too soon became overcrowded. Still, many Victorians looked to the future with a resolute stoicism that has come to exemplify the people of that period, a trait that is clearly present in all sympathetic protagonists in the novels written during Queen Victoria’s reign. In North and South this trait is clearly one valued by the narrator, as they state that “the future must be met, however stern and iron it be.”

It ought to be mentioned though that there is a dark side to this widely accepted notion of stoicism and forthrightness, which is portrayed by Charles Dickens in his novel Hard Times. The novel begins with a bold speech stating:

“NOW, what I want is, Facts. Teach these boys and girls nothing but Facts. Facts alone are wanted in life. Plant nothing else, and root out everything else. You can only form the minds of reasoning animals upon Facts: nothing else will ever be of any service to them.”

Since the Victorian era was an age of scientific discovery and progress (boasting such people as Charles Darwin, Alexander Melville Bell and Charles Babbage), and new labor laws introduced compulsory education for children, a great focus developed on developing knowledge to continue the trend of scientific progress. Some however feared that there would be a focus on knowledge at the expense of traditional values and compassion, a reflection on the loss of jobs to machines, of industrialization taking over not just livelihood but even thoughts. This fear was also presented in Hard Times, as a consequence of the fact based education:

“You have been so careful of me, that I never had a child’s heart. You have trained me so well, that I never dreamed a child’s dream. You have dealt so wisely with me, father, from my cradle to this hour, that I never had a child’s belief or a child’s fear.”

The loss of basic humanity in the face of machinery is also reinforced as a theme in the novel by the narrator pointing out that whilst it is easy to measure productivity, it is impossible to use that same knowledge to judge a person’s character:

“It is known, to the force of a single pound weight, what the engine will do; but, not all the calculators of the National Debt can tell me the capacity for good or evil, for love or hatred, for patriotism or discontent, for the decomposition of virtue into vice, or the reverse, at any single moment in the soul of one of these its quiet servants, with the composed faces and the regulated actions.”

From this it is clear to the reader that Dickens values moral integrity, like any Victorian gentleman would, and is warning of the potential costs of embracing industrialization without considering the consequences – in this case making people cold to each other, and jeopardizing simple interactions. This can be linked to the concerns regarding anonymity in large cities, a result of the rapid population growth, as expressed in Lady Audley’s Secret by Mary Elizabeth Braddon. In the novel, the main driving force of the plot is the mystery surrounding the identity of Lucy Audley, a governess from the country who is actually a murderer who disguises herself as someone else in the large community that is the city. In a typical community a lie such as that would have been figured out swiftly from the correlation of information between the various members. However, a city lacks the communal ties of a smaller settlement such as a village, allowing criminals to more readily flourish in the proverbial shadows – similar to how Fagin’s gang manage to evade capture in Oliver Twist. In this manner, darkness can also be claimed to be a motif of Victorian literature, specifically relating to the decline of morals, and the most often cited example of this is Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness. A famous example of a novel dealing with the theme of imperialism and colonialism, it comes across at first like a story of adventure (which were popular at the time), detailing Marlow’s journey up the Congo in pursuit of the mysterious Kurtz. It can be more accurately described as a deconstruction of the popular fiction of the time, actually focusing on the “unspoken” elements of adventure novels, as pointed out in Heart of Darkness itself:

“The conquest of the earth, which mostly means the taking it away from those who have a different complexion or slightly flatter noses than ourselves, is not a pretty thing when you look into it too much.”

The novel makes much of this premise (the reality of things as opposed to the romanticized view many Europeans held), as it was a common belief at the time that European settlers were providing indigenous cultures with progress in the forms of social reforms and greater scientific knowledge. Conrad instead writes about a fictionalized version of his own experiences to show how this is not what was occurring. The novel primarily shows how the stations (outposts in remote regions) are subverting their purposes, and rather than being a “beacon on the road toward better things, a center for trade of course but also for humanizing, improving, instructing” is instead a place of savagery and oppression. Yet Conrad takes measures to ensure that this is not seen as the fault of the natives corrupting the sensibilities of the white settlers, but is rather a flaw in the human soul itself, the proverbial “darkness” within. The most striking display of this notion is right at the end of the tale, when Marlow looks out over London:

“I raised my head. The offing was barred by a black bank of clouds, and the tranquil waterway leading to the uttermost ends of the earth flowed somber under an overcast sky–seemed to lead into the heart of an immense darkness.”

From which it is clear to the reader that for all the veneer of civilization that Europeans wear, at heart they are like all men, and just as fallible, if not actually more corrupted their ideals than others.

The Victorian Era was a time of great change. A new century was dawning, and technology and science were progressing at a rapid pace. The blank spaces on world maps had been filled in, and the world was fully in the grasp of humanity. And though knowledge had progressed, many feared that it had gone too far, and that society had to progress before it could fully harness and use what it had discovered. Instead, it seemed as if society was declining, the traditional norms and values of the Victorians slowly giving way to the efficient and mechanical minds of businessmen seeking to increase profit, as well as the desperate workers beneath them who lost ties of community and became anonymous within the giant cities. In addition to this, more and more people came to question what few beliefs had carried over from previous times (such as the superiority of Europeans) and how true they actually were, championing progress towards more modern thinking and understanding regarding issues such as racial and cultural identity. In the end, it is perhaps best to say that Victorian literature was obsessed with the notion of an ending, and a new beginning.